General information and reference for all students

 

Brief History of Taekwon-Do

Reference Sheet

 

 


In 1946, just after the occupation, new martial arts schools, called kwans, opened in Seoul, Korea.
Comprised mainly of Japanese exponents, these schools developed the new martial art comprising of their
combined knowledge and practices. In 1952, Korean President Syngman Rhee decreed that the kwans merge,
and from there, the accumulated and combined practices developed into one single martial art, known as
Tae Soo Do.
In 1957 General Choi Hong Hi advocated the title Taekwon-Do, replacing 'hand' (Soo) with 'fist' (Kwon).
General Choi continued to promote Taekwondo for the rest of his life. Regarded as the father of TKD, he
held the the title of Ninth Dan Grandmaster until his death in 2002.

 

 

The Five Tenents of Taekwon-Do

  • Courtesy: Politeness at all times towards your fellow students, seniors and instructors.
  • Integrity: Honesty with yourself; recognizing your own faults.
  • Perseverance: Determination to reach whatever goals you've set yourself.
  • Self-Control: The ability to maintain control of your feelings and emotions.
  • Indomitable Spirit: Determination to succeed and excel, even in the face of adversity.

 

 

The Taekwon-Do Oath

  • I shall observe the five tenents of Taekwon-Do
  • I shall respect my seniors and instructors
  • I shall never misuse Taekwon-Do
  • I shall stand for freedom and justice
  • I shall endeavour to build a more peaceful world
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    Dojang Conduct

    All students are expected to abide by the rules of conduct in the dojang in order to maintain an
    orderly and respectable training session.

    • Bow upon entering the dojang
    • Bow to your instructor on entry
    • Exchange greetings and pleasantries with your fellow students
    • Bow to your instructor upon commencement of the training session
    • Bow to your instructor upon prior to dismissal
    • Bow upon leaving the dojang

     

     

    The Belts

    The belts of Taekwon-Do signify the student's level of proficiency at any given time. As the student
    progresses, a new belt is awarded to acknowledge the advancement. Each belt is darker in colour
    than the preceding belt; this is because originally, the belt was dyed rather that replaced. Each
    belt's colour has it's own significance and representation.

    • White: Innocence, applying to the new student.
    • Yellow: The earth from which the tree will begin to grow.
    • Green: The shoots of the tree as it begins to sprout.
    • Blue: The heavens, to which the maturing tree grows
    • Red: Danger, a caution to the student, and to the opponent.
    • Black: The opposite of white; also signifies the wearer's fearlessness.
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      Patterns

      Patterns are a set of movements to emulate physical conflict with an imaginary opponent.
      These are designed to teach the student the correct attack and defence moves, and to introduce
      techniques and styles. A new pattern is learnt at each colour belt level, which the student will
      be expected to have mastered before progressing to the next.

       

       


      Sago-Jirugi

      Although not strictly a pattern, Sago-Jirugi is a set of movements to introduce the new student
      the basic priciples of Taekown-Do. It demonstrates and teaches the student the correct footwork,
      mainly walking stance, along with middle punch, and lower forearm guarding block. Consisting of
      nine movements in both left and right direction, Sago-Jirugi serves as a basic introduction for white
      belt holders.

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       


      Chon-Ji

      Consisting of nineteen movements, Chon-Ji translates to The Heaven, The Earth.
      This pattern is a follow-on from Sajo-Jirugi, and introduces the student to new stances,
      blocks and turning techniques

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       


      Dan Gun

      Named after the Holy Dan Gun, the founder of Korea (2333BC) this pattern involves twenty-one
      movements, introducing knife-hand strikes, and further blocking techniques.

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       


      Do-San

      With twenty-four movements, Do-San is so called after the pen-name of Ahn Chang Ho,
      who dedicated his life to the furtherment of education in Korea

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       


      Won-Hyo

      Won-Hyo consists of twenty-eight movements, and is named after the noted monk who
      introduced Buddhism to the Silla dynasty in 686AD

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       


      Yul-Gok

      So called after the pseudonym of Yi-li, the Confucius of Korea, Yul-Gok involves thirty-eight
      movements, which represent his birthplace in degrees latitude.

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       


      Joong-Gun

      Named after the assassin of Hiro Ito, Joong-Gun has thirty-two movements, which
      represent the age at which he was executed.

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       


      Toi-Gye

      The pen-name of scholar Yi-Hwang, an authority on Confuciunism. The thirty-seven
      movements represent his birthplace in degrees latitude.

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       


      Hwa-Rang

      Hwa-Rang translates to 'Flowering Youth', and is named after the youth group which
      eventually led to the unification of the three kingdoms of Korea. The twenty-nine
      movements represent the 29th infantry division, where Taekwon-Do developed to maturity.

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       


      Choong-Moo

      This pattern consists of thirty movements, and is named after Admiral Yi-Sun-Sin,
      inventor of the first armoured battleship in 1592AD

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       


      Po-Eun

      This pattern consists of thirty-six movements, and is the pseudonym of the loyal subject
      Chong Mong-Chu (1400) who was a famous poet, and whose poem "I would not serve a
      second master though I might be crucified a hundred times" is know to every Korean.
      The diagram represents his loyalty to the king and country towards the end of the Koryo Dynasty.

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       


      Ge-Baek

      This pattern consists of forty-four movements, and is named after a great general
      in the Baek Je Dynasty (660AD). The diagram represents his severe and strict
      military discipline

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       


      Kwang-Gae

      This pattern consists of thirty-nine movements, and is named after the famous Kwang-Gae-
      Toh-Wang, the 19th King of the Koguryo Dynasty, who regained all of the lost territories
      including the greater part of Manchuria. The diagram represents the expansion and
      recovery of the lost territory. The 39 movements refer to the first two figures of 391AD,
      the year he came to the throne

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

      Glossary of Terms

       

      Kicks

       

      Front Rising Kick
      Side Kick
      Front Snap Kick
      Turning Kick
      Side Piercing Kick
      Reverse Side Kick
      Hooking Kick
      Crescent Kick
      Back Kick
      Axe Kick
      Twisting Kick
      Waving Kick
      Pressing Kick
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      Ap Cha Olligi
      Yop Chagi
      Ap Cha Busigi
      Dollyo Chagi
      Yop Cha Jurigi
      Bandae Yop Chagi
      Golcho Chagi
      Bandal Chagi
      Dwit Chagi
      Naeryo Chagi
      Bituro Chagi
      Doro Chagi
      Noollo Chagi

       

       

       

      Stances

       

       
      Attention Stance
      Parallel Stance
      Sitting Stance
      Walking Stance
      L Stance
      Fixed Stance
      Ready Stance
      Closed Ready Stance A
      Bending Stance
      Bending Ready Stance A
      Vertical Stance
      X Stance
      One Leg Stance
      Rear Foot Stance
      Low Foot Stance
      Closed Stance
      Parallel Stance with
      Heaven Hand
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      Charyot Sogi
      Narani Sogi
      Annun Sogi
      Gunnon Sogi
      Nuinja Sogi
      Gojong Sogi
      Chumbi Sogi
      Moa Chumbi Sogi A
      Golburyo Sogi
      Golburyo Chumbi Sogi A
      Soojik Sogi
      Kyocha Sogi
      Wae Bal Sogi
      Dwit Bal Sogi
      Nachuro Sogi
      Moa Sogi
      Narani So Hanulson

       

       

       

      Blocks

       

      Inner Forearm Block
      Outer Forearm Block
      Rising Block
      Forearm Guarding Block
      Knifehand Guarding Block
      Twin Forearm Block
      Inward Outer Forearm Block
      Circular Block
      Wedging Block
      Hooking Block
      Waist Block
      Palm Pushing Block
      Upward Palm Pushing Block
      U Shaped Block
      X Fist Pressing Block
      Pressing Block
      W Shaped Block
      Vertical Block
      Double Block
      Twin Block
      Upper Block
      9-Shaped Block
      Palm Scooping Block
      U-Shaped Grasp
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      An Palmok Makgi
      Batak Palmok Makgi
      Chookyo Makgi
      Palmok Daebi Makgi
      Sonkal Daebi Makgi
      Sang Palmok Makgi
      Anero Bakat Palmok Makgi
      Dollimio Makgi
      Hekyo Makgi
      Golcho Makgi
      Hori Makgi
      Sanbadak Miro Makgi
      Ollyo Sanbadak Miro Makgi
      Digutja Makgi
      Kyocha Noollo Makgi
      Noolo Makgi
      San Makgi
      Sewo Makgi
      Doo Makgi
      Sang Maki
      Wi Makgi
      Gutja Makgi
      Sonbadak Duro Maki
      Digutja Japgi

       

       

       

      Other Moves

       

      Punch
      Strike
      Thrust
      Straight
      Release Move
      Inward
      Backward
      Left
      Right
      Front
      Side
      Twin
      Double
      Obverse
      Reverse
      Jumping
      Flat
      Flying
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      Jirugi
      Tae Rigi
      Tulgi
      Sun
      Jappyosol Tae
      Anaero
      Bakaero
      Wen
      Oron
      Ap
      Yop
      Sang
      Doo
      Baro
      Bandae
      Twigi
      Opun
      Twimyo

       

       

       

      Body Parts

       

      Hand Parts
      Forefist
      Palm
      Knifehand
      Backfist
      Finger
      Fingertips
      Sidefist
      Arc Hand
      Upset Fingertips
      Reverse Knifehand

       

      Foot Parts
      Back Sole
      Back Heel
      Ball of Foot
      Foot Sword
      Side Sole
      Reverse Footsword
      Instep

       

      Elbow
      Knee
      Head
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      Sangbansin
      Ap Joomok
      Sandbadak
      Sonkal
      Dung Joomok
      Songarak
      Sonkut
      Yop Joomok
      Badal Son
      Dwigibun Sonkut
      Sonkal Dung

       

      Habansin
      Dwit Kumchi
      Dwit Chook
      Ap Kumchi
      Balkal
      Yop Bal Badak
      Balkal Dung
      Baldung

       

      Palkup
      Moorup
      Mori

       

       

       

      General Terms

       

      Training Hall
      Training Suit
      Instructor
      Student
      Belt
      Pattern
      Press-ups
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      Dojang
      Dobok
      Sabum
      Jeja
      Ti
      Tul
      Momtong Bachia

       

       

       

      Commands

       

      Attention
      Bow
      Ready
      Start
      Stop
      Return to Ready Stance
      Dismiss
      Forward
      Backward
      About Turn
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      Charyot
      Kyong-Ye
      Chumbi
      Si-Jak
      Goman
      Barrol
      Haessan
      Apro Kaggi
      Dwiryo Kaggi
      Dwiryo Torro